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Finding Foreign and International Sources

This guide is intended to assist researchers with finding foreign and international sources.

What's in This Guide

This guide provides information about how to find and utilize non-U.S. sources of legal information. This guide was originally created to assist journal members in locating sources for cite-checking, and so the guide discusses understanding Bluebook rules and how to track down sources from a given citation. However, this information is still useful to anyone researching in this area. 

General Background

Foreign law refers to "the law of another country" (e.g., the law of Germany, the law of France, etc.). 

International law refers to "the legal system governing the relationships between countries," including "international organizations and individuals." [Black's Law Dictionary, 10th ed.]

The Bluebook provides guidance for citing foreign materials in Rule 20 (Foreign Materials) and Table 2 (Foreign Jurisdictions) (as of the 21st edition of the Bluebook, Table 2 is only available online). The Bluebook provides guidance for citing international materials in Rule 21 (International Materials) and Tables 3 (Intergovernmental Organizations), 4 (Treaty Sources), and 5 (Arbitral Reporters). 

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