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Citation Analysis Tools

This guide provides an overview of how to use citation analysis tools.

Google Scholar Citations

Google Scholar is a free resource that allows users to search for multidisciplinary scholarly literature. Sources include articles, books, theses, court opinions, online repositories, and certain websites such as university websites. Google Scholar does not provide access to all full-text articles, but does indicate where these articles can be found in databases that Stanford University subscribes to, such as HeinOnline or JSTOR. 

Step 1: Search for the publication for which you are interested in seeing how many times it has been cited or what other publications have cited to it.

Step 2: Click on the "Cited by" link to retrieve a list of materials that cite to the publication you searched for in Step 1. 

Author Profiles

Google Scholar also allows users to view author profiles, which provide aggregate citation information across all of an author's publications. You can access an author's profile by clicking on their name. Only authors whose names are underlined have author profiles available.


Citation counts found on Google Scholar are frequently higher than those found in other citation tools. Google Scholar does not provide a list of all of the publications and sources included in its database, but notes the following about its coverage: "Google Scholar includes journal and conference papers, theses and dissertations, academic books, pre-prints, abstracts, technical reports and other scholarly literature from all broad areas of research. You'll find works from a wide variety of academic publishers, professional societies and university repositories, as well as scholarly articles available anywhere across the web. Google Scholar also includes court opinions and patents." [Source: Google Scholar Content Coverage]